Austenitic Stainless Steel

Expanite Surface Sardening For a Variety of Stainless Steel Alloys Including Austenitic.

Austenitic stainless steel is on of the major categories of stainless steel include Martensitic, ferritic, duplex, and precipitation hardened variants. Martensitic stainless steel is a stainless steel alloy characterized by its martensitic crystal structure, which can be strengthened and refined through processes such as aging and heat treatment. Its predominant crystalline structure is austenite, which is face-centered cubic in nature. This structure prevents steels from becoming hardenable through heat treatment and renders them essentially non-magnetic. To achieve this structure, it's necessary to introduce sufficient austenite-stabilizing elements like nickel, manganese, and nitrogen. The Incoloy family of alloys falls within the realm of super austenitic stainless steels. Learn more on WIKI 

UNS S30400 / S30403 / AISI 304 / 1.4301 / 1.4307

AISI 304 stainless has excellent fabricability and weldability characteristics and is the most widely used chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steel. It is nonmagnetic in the annealed condition and becomes slightly magnetic when cold worked. Nonhardenable by heat treating.

UNS S31600 / S31603 / AISI 316 / 316L / 1.4404 / 1.4435

AISI 316 stainless is a molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless offering improved corrosion resistance in chlorides and many other environments over 304. It also has higher tensile and creep strength at elevated temperatures than the conventional 18% chromium - 8% nickel alloys. Suggested for applications requiring a moderate level of improvement in machinability for shorter runs of less complex parts, particularly at larger bar diameters.

UNS S30300 / AISI 303 / 1.4305

AISI 303 is an 18-8 chrome-nickel free-machining stainless steel with the addition of sulfur to enhance the machinability of this ordinarily tough and difficult to machine alloy. AISI 303 steel possesses nongalling properties that make disassembly of parts easy and help to avoid scratching or galling in moving parts. It is not recommended for vessels containing gases or liquids under high pressures.

Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steels

Heat-resistant grades are designed for applications at elevated temperatures, typically exceeding 600°C (1,100°F).

These alloys must effectively withstand corrosion, primarily oxidation, while maintaining their mechanical properties, especially strength (yield stress) and resistance to creep deformation.
Chromium primarily contributes to corrosion resistance, often accompanied by the addition of silicon and aluminum. Nickel, on the other hand, is not particularly resistant to sulfur-containing environments. To address this issue, additional silicon and aluminum are incorporated, forming highly stable oxides. Additionally, the presence of rare earth elements like cerium enhances the stability of the oxide film.
 EN designation EN AISI
X10CrNi18-8   1.4310   301
X5CrNi18-10   1.4301   304
X2CrNi18-9  1.4307   304L
X8CrNiS18-9  1.4305   303
X6CrNiTi18-10  1.4541   321
X5CrNiMo17-12-2  1.4401   316
X2CrNiMo17-12-2  1.4404   316L
X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2  1.4571   316Ti


The Purpose of the Process


The purpose of this process is to dissolve nitrogen in the surface of stainless steel to a depth in the range of 0.2-2 mm. Peak hardness ranges from 280HV on austenitic grades to 950HV on martensitic/ferritic grades.


The purpose of this process is to dissolve nitrogen and carbon in the surface of stainless steel to a depth in the range of 5 - 30µm. Peak hardness ranges from 1100-1300HV.


The purpose of this process is to combine ExpaniteHigh-T and ExpaniteLow-T processes to achieve higher load bearing and corrosion properties. Firstly, the ExpaniteHigh-T process is applied to create a deep case depth with moderate nitrogen content. Secondly, the ExpaniteLow-T process is applied to create a high-hardness surface on top of the ExpaniteHigh-T zone. The Expanite process does not result in a coating, but a diffusion zone with an increased carbon and nitrogen content. We call this zone expanded austenite, expanded martensite or simply: Expanite.


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